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Róbert Oláh DOI The aim of my paper is to draw attention to the phenomenon of obsolence that used to be one of the most significant characteristics of Reformed institutional and private geolam suisse anti aging in the 17th and 18th century Carpathian Basin. Book-trade and censorship In early modern Hungary book-trade could be defined as the activity of printers, hucksters and other foreign cheap jacks.
Printers were selling publications printed by themselves or those on trust. Even geolam suisse anti aging century book collections were augmented by mediaeval methods. The lack of organised book-trade did not automatically lead to isolation. This backwardness cannot be explained by the limited possibilities of book-trade either.
The direction and intensity of peregrination was changing due to historical events. Between the 16th and 18th centuries Reformed students who firstly attended universities in Germany Wittenberg, Heidelberg, Frankfurt an der Oder, Leipzig, JenaThe Netherlands Leiden, Geolam suisse anti aging, Franeker, Groningen, HarderwijkSwitzerland Zürich, Basel, Genf and England Oxford, Cambridge 4 brought a significant number of books from abroad both for themselves, their patrons noblemen, citizens geolam suisse anti aging country townsand their former schools.
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For a long time authorities did not interfere much with their activity. This could partly have resulted from the fact that they circumvented the alertness of German and Austrian Catholic provinces and that of Hungarian authorities. Peregrinating students who were going to The Netherlands to study at Dutch universities often chose this route. Miklós Apáti Madár returned home through Poland. It was he who together with János Bánki escorted the volumes of the Hungarian Bible with great difficulty on their way to Hungary.
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This case was so unusual that both Pozsony county and the national assembly dealt with the affair of the confiscated books. Although not all sources survived, we cannot consider these events as landmark cases. From the beginning of the 18th century increasing numbers of cases came to light that involved peregrinant students being deprived of their books. In almost three thousand copies of the Bible, which was translated into Hungarian by György Komáromi Csipkés geolam suisse anti aging printed in Leiden, were confiscated by the customs officers in Eperjes, not to mention the books belonging to peregrinant student escorting the cargo.
Most of his books included latest theological findings. From that point on regular complaints were made as a result of such procedures. The authorities attributed the war-time or the French revolution as reasons.
Obtaining passports also became challenging also the sons of the Count Teleki family of Transylvania had to apply for it for a long time. Geolam suisse anti aging Tivadar, Budapest, Medicina,69— Uniformity and monotony are out of the question: István Monok drew attention to the fact that the aspects of Reformed school geolam suisse anti aging in Sárospatak and Debrecen were different.
In 18th century Debrecen, the stock was dominated by books of Reformed authors and was much more homogeneous, whereas in Patak non- Calvinist Catholic and Lutheran books made the overall picture more colourful.
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Due to different tendencies in foreign university attendance Reformed theological literature was dominated by Dutch authors in Patak while there was a prevalence of Swiss authors in Debrecen. A significant portion of the items in the catalogue was printed in the first half of the 17th century or in the 16th century quite often before Essential grammatical, rhetorical, dialectic textbooks, standard theological works and reformed theological works of that period like Bible editions, commentaries, sermons, pious works, and polemical 10 Kosáry Domokos, Művelődés a XVIII.
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Ecsedy Judit, A könyvnyomtatás Magyarországon a kézisajtó korában, —, Budapest, Balassi, The incoming rector, György Kiséri found 9 students altogether in the practically empty school in In the school merged with the college of Sárospatak-Gyulafehérvár.
In in the library of the Reformed College of Titlepage from the Bible translated by György Debrecen there were 3 Komáromi Csipkés copies of the Institutes of Christian Religion and 24 Bible commentaries from In a total of 48 works were registered which were written by Calvin, among them 13 Erdélyi könyvesházak, II, Kolozsvár, Marosvásárhely, Nagyenyed, Szászváros, Székelyudvarhely, Jakó Zsigmond anyaggyűjtésének felhasználásával sajtó alá rend.
Kollégium,60— The library of the Reformed College of Sárospatak, experienced numerous vicissitudes and had to move because of persecutions during the counter- reformation period. The high geolam suisse anti aging of copies might have been grounded by the fact that they were used for teaching purposes on the one hand; on the other hand legacies as well as donations might have accounted for it.
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It was a habit from Nagyenyed to Debrecen to hold book auctions. In the middle of the 18th century Professor György Maróthi brought several geolam suisse anti aging books under the hammer after having weeding them out, and the money was used to update the stock of the College library in Debrecen. Moreover libraries of pastors were auctioned on behalf of widows.
Some of these books, mainly earlier publications, were also purchased for the College library. I find the name of Professor Miklós Sinai worth accentuating. Szabó Botond, kvercetin tölgy anti aging alapozó. Sinai and his successors bought books for the college at foreign auctions, mainly in Vienna, but the sources of acquisition can sometimes be traced back to auctions in The Netherlands.
Books from legacies had typically been purchased decades earlier.
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Inthe library of the College of Debrecen received 84 volumes from the legacy of Rev. János Kecskeméti, who was a pastor in Nagykőrös. Fekete Csaba [et al.
That is to say the deceased persons bought most of these books as students, and editions were catalogued that had been published geolam suisse anti aging to years earlier. According to the college tradition, the grateful students having returned from abroad donated some books to their alma mater. The same thing happened to Rev. Mihály Polgári, in Mezőtúr.
He was charged with high treason, and later action was taken against him. According to the old volume catalogue of the College library, geolam suisse anti aging has been in use sincehe made a donation of 7 volumes. Bárány Attila [et al. Notes immortalizing the donations in the ies and ies demonstrate that new theological works were received at the former alma mater, e.
Pastoral libraries Reformed intellectuals were less able to create a real theological library due to certain features of the Hungarian book-market. Encyclopaedic book collecting was much more characteristic of them: they acquired standard works on almost anything from theology to jurisprudence and medicine.
They tried to set up a collection of books that they could use for a lifetime. He also obtained bible-philological works regarded as modern in the middle of the 17th century, and a significant amount of polemic publications. Apart from theological work, books could be found on the trivium, philosophy, languages, literature, history and church history, theory of the state, politics, jurisprudence, natural sciences geolam suisse anti aging medicine.
His theological collection was characterized by a higher number of Bible editions and commentaries. Standard works by Lutheran theologians were not lacking either. The follow-up of the 18th century modern scientific literature was hindered to a great extent because Hungarian intellectuals still had Latin erudition, whereas more significant discoveries had already been published in the first place in German and French. In Debrecen regular instruction in French and German could only be introduced in It is worth mentioning that 3 years earlier a decision was made at the cost of heated debates, i.
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Sámuel Vilmányi, who died in Franeker incan be considered an exception to the rule, namely he hardly bought any 17th century Calvinist standard works. On the contrary he purchased 7 Dutch and 40 French mainly moral theological volumes instead.
He wanted to read scientific literature not mst 312 telomeráz inhibitor anti aging in Latin but also in other foreign languages to improve his professional knowledge. There was a high number of Lutherans and Unitarians among the 16th and 17th century owners of the Institutes of Christian Religion. The first Transylvanian owner was usually a Saxon citizen with good German connections.
Every fifth volume of the Institutes of Christian Religion could be found in Transylvania geolam suisse anti aging the 18th century. At that time all owners were Hungarian reformed people. Two- thirds of their collection was made up of books on theology, which is not astonishing in the case of young people who were preparing for a career as pastors and spent just a few years teaching in a rural elementary school.
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By the beginning of the 19th century they had geolam suisse anti aging considered outdated. Most of the works were written in Latin or in Hungarian, books in German, mainly grammar books, were seen as exceptions. It is also possible that the teachers omitted the books from the inventory, which had to be concealed from publicity like the literature of the Enlightenment to avoid being called to account and enable them to keep their position.
One of them is a phenomenon that has been described in scientific literature several times. Among others the initial stage of the book market, the activity of the Catholic offices and censorship in addition to the lack of resources could have caused this decline. Not all aspects of this process were necessarily destructive, e. In the middle of the 18th century the biography of the Genevan reformer written by Beza was translated into Hungarian for the first time33 and the massacre on St.
Moreover the stories of Protestant martyrs who lived centuries before were actualized, thus, setting an example for persecuted reformed people. Hard-pressed reformed people must have turned to old pieces of reading to use them as a tool in their struggle for their survival. According to István Monok, archaization might have been a modern and effective reaction at the right moment.
Tóth Zsombor, Budapest, rec. Csorba Dávid [et al. Bibliotheken reformierten Pfarrer um die Wende des Jahrhunderts im Königreich Ungarn Jahrhundert am Beispiel des Jesuiten Georg Pray —