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Metrics details Abstract Understanding factors and mechanisms causing large carnivore aggression towards people is crucial for their conservation in modern human-dominated landscapes.

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We present detailed descriptions of wolf attacks on people in early summer in two areas of Poland, analysis of behaviour, fitness and origin of individuals responsible for the attacks and management actions undertaken by local communities as well as governmental bodies and non-governmental organisations.

We show that attacks were caused by yearling wolves month-old male and month-old female originating from local packs, which appeared near households several months prior to incidents. Both individuals were positively food-conditioned and showed increasing habituation caused by irresponsible behaviour of people such as long-lasting intentional feeding or illegal keeping.

Post mortem necropsy revealed obesity and serious abnormality of spleen polysplenia in the problem female wolf that negatively impacted her fitness and was the most likely reason for her presence near households and feeding on leftovers.

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Despite prolonged observations of these wolves very close to human settlements less than 30 mno mitigation actions were undertaken until the attacks, after which both individuals were killed. We provide several recommendations to avoid aggressive human-carnivore encounters.

Introduction Conservation of large carnivores is often justified by their fox town suisse anti aging role in ecosystems Steneck ; Kuijper et al. Nonetheless, their presence in nowadays human-dominated landscapes is inevitably connected with a wide array of issues, including threat to human safety Löe and Röskaft Despite global decreases in the abundance of large carnivores Estes et al. The growing frequency of encounters with large carnivores is additionally provoked by the intense recreational activities of people in natural habitats, intentional feeding to attract wild animals, expansion of human settlements, growing adaptation of carnivores to anthropogenic landscapes and even climate change Penteriani et al.

Compared with other species Langley and Morrow ; Forrester et al. However, if such cases occur, they often receive excessive media attention Löe and Röskaft ; Bombieri et al.

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Therefore, understanding mechanisms affecting large carnivore aggression towards people is crucial for the effective management of conflicts LCIE Although bears and big cats are responsible for most fatalities caused by large carnivores worldwide Bombieri et al. It is particularly important in regions where the range and number of wolves has substantially increased in the last few decades Chapron et al.

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Wolf attacks on humans are extremely rare; in addition, historical descriptions of wolf attacks on people often fail to provide reliable information due to errors in recording, exaggerations and problems with translations Linnell et al. Therefore, our understanding of aggressive wolf-human encounters is largely based on anecdotal data Jenness ; Rajpurohit ; Türkmen et al. The whole picture is additionally blurred by false claims of wolf attacks Caniglia et al.

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In this paper, we provide detailed descriptions fox town suisse anti aging contemporary wolf attacks on five people in two different areas in Poland, analysis of the behaviour and origin of individuals causing the attacks and management actions undertaken by official bodies to solve these problems.

Material and methods Study sites Our study includes two areas located in separate parts of Poland km distance between them Fig. The country is inhabited by three large carnivore species, the wolf, brown bear Ursus arctos and Eurasian lynx Lynx lynxall of them strictly protected.

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However, only the wolf is widely distributed Jędrzejewski et al. Shaded areas denotes forests.

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The wolf occurs in the Bieszczady Mts. The local ungulate community consists of three game species: red deer Cervus elaphus with density of 7.

There is also a reintroduced, free-living, fully protected but small population of European bison Bison bonasus.

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There is only limited deliberate reduction of game ungulates in the BNP, but in adjacent areas, intensive hunting is conducted within hunting grounds managed by state forests or hunting clubs of the Polish Hunting Union PHU.

Commercial trophy hunt tickets for wild ungulates are also sold to hunters from abroad. The BNP, together with a buffer zone including the Cisna community about km2is inhabited by four wolf packs Pirga and Polakiewicz The main source of income of local people is farming and livestock breeding, following by forestry, sawmilling and woodwork. Over the last 10 years, however, there has been a substantial increase in tourism focused on natural resources, especially trophy hunting for game ungulates, wildlife watching and wildlife photography for which local communities provide accommodation, food and tourist guidance Churski Case 2 occurred at the north-western edge of fox town suisse anti aging Noteć Forest hereinafter NF öregedésgátló 2050, in Bagniewo and Trzebicz Młyn villages located in the Drezdenko community.

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NF is the large lowland forest tract ca. The area is mainly covered with planted Scots pine Pinus sylvestris monocultures Kusiak and Dymek-Kusiak There are several, although small, Natura sites protecting wolf habitats Diserens et al. After a fox town suisse anti aging absence caused by their deliberate extermination Nowak and Mysłajekwolves recolonised the area in Nowak and Mysłajekand inthe population reached six wolf packs Nowak et al.

The wolf is the only large carnivore permanently inhabiting NF. The ungulate community consists of three native game species—the roe deer 0. Hunting is conducted within hunting grounds managed by state forests or hunting clubs of the Polish Hunting Union.

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The NF area is sparsely populated, with only lone settlements or small villages in the central part of the forest, while villages or towns are located on the edges, near larger lakes and on the banks of two big rivers. The NF serves as a recreation area in late spring, summer and early bifokális szemüveg vélemények. There are many camp sites, weekend cabins and hotels near the lakes and rivers, which cause an increasing human pressure on the forest during vegetation season.

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Bagniewo and Trzebicz Młyn villages located about 1 km apart to each other comprise about 20 houses spread within woods and fields and adjacent to large meadows of the Noteć river valley. Their inhabitants mostly work in towns or bigger villages, have small fields and few livestock or are retired. Some residents are foresters or hunters. Methods Animal aggression towards humans is a result of both environmental and social factors.

Therefore, to investigate causes of wolf aggressive behaviour, we aimed to gather information regarding animals causing attacks, and their relationship with local wolf populations, as well as reactions of local citizens and actions undertaken by authorities. We applied the following methods: Fox town suisse anti aging mortem analysis and documentation Both wolves causing attacks on people were shot.