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Felelős szerkesztő: dr. Forrai Judit 1 www. Historical continuity and cultural heritage of a group of radical right-wing women However, it can often seem a diffuse, haphazard set of incomprehensible, strange phenomena and even more confusing correlations in the eyes of the readers inexperienced in contemporary Mesopotamian science.
This is particularly true for the first four tablets of the handbook, which previously formed a separate unit and is also known as the subseries Šumma sinništu arâtma If a woman is pregnantdealing with human births. Both assyriology and medical history have paid little attention so far to this initial section of the teratological series. Apart from the more or less successful identification of a few pathological cases, the passage was not considered suitable for or worthy of detailed felforgató patikus anti aging szérum.
Namely, the first four lines of the initial tablet outline what it means for the future if the foetus of a pregnant woman cries in various modes. It is beyond doubt, that a crying foetus is a complete nonsense, and as such, a real prodigy, in the full sense of the word.
In the light of this fact, and considering that the canonical Šumma izbu series, as already mentioned, occupied a prominent place among Mesopotamian scientific compendia, a few interesting and thought-provoking questions can felforgató patikus anti aging szérum asked.
Why was very phenomenon of the crying foetus discussed in the beginning of the series in question, as a kind of introduction, through the felforgató patikus anti aging szérum four lines of the initial tablet? How these introductory omens, and furthermore, their wider context, the many similar, seemingly impossible protases of the first, some half hundred omen entries of the first tablet can be associated with the essential scientific nature of this text?
The aim of this paper is, after reviewing the basic known and some more sophisticated possible methods of Mesopotamian omen interpretation, to shed light on the proper scientific www.
Introduction Upon reading the first tablet of the canonical Šumma izbu omen series one can soon become aware of the problem of Esarhaddon BCKing of Assyria.
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The handbook, also known as — using a modern medical term — the teratological compendium, dealing mainly with observations of malformed human and animal births, represented one of the highest levels of science for the scholars of the Assyrian court, and was considered among the revelations of Ea, the god felforgató patikus anti aging szérum wisdom. See more on this text among others : Leichty7, Veldhuis77— From tablet Felforgató patikus anti aging szérum.
For the thematic division see: Leichty25—26, Stol, Maul62— The interpretation of malformed births as spontaneous omens is an ancient notion, presumably dating back to the concept of messages sent by the gods, and therefore the omen literature of such nature can also be traced back to earlier textual traditions. Their popularity and the general cultural demand for them are well reflected by the fact that several versions, unambiguously imported from Mesopotamia, turned up from Ugarit and also from the Hittite capital.
For further reconstruction and sources of the textual tradition of the series known from the first millennium, and canonized at some point during the Middle Babylonian period, see: Leichty 20—23, and for newer publications: Biggs ,Frahm and Maul A study by N.
De Zorzi De Zorziwhich became available to me only after the present study had been completed, deals with the structure of Šumma izbu and the primarily symbolic correlations of the various omens.
Furthermore it mentions, that in her doctoral dissertation in preparation the author includes several, yet unpublished fragments of the omen series as well as significant results regarding the reconstruction www. Today in medical science mola means the product of a disorder called molar pregnancy, a placenta manifesting anomalies and most aptly resembling a bunch of grapes Fig.
The boundaries of the ancient concept are not that strict. Since this work is not felforgató patikus anti aging szérum at hand, I can only report on the availability of these newly published texts. As the above quoted letter passage reflects, correct interpretation of legjobb anti aging szemgél Šumma izbu omens required appropriate expertise, and therefore explanatory texts, commentaries accompanied the series.
For the basic and for the most part reconstructed version of the latter the Principal Commentary see: Leichty—; on the characteristics of this commentary texts: Leichty22— Therefore, since the expression can not be precisely translated with one word, the Akkadian version will be used hereinafter. For further readings on the determination and etymology of izbu see felforgató patikus anti aging szérum others : Stol, Rochberg Also worthy of mention is the theory of Ann Kilmer, according to which the approximately 50 lines of the text discussed in the present essay deal primarily with human placentas Kilmeresp.
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Although symptoms explicable in this way may probably be found in here, in the majority of cases the descriptions of the protases i. The clarification of these differences is also essential since the original meaning of the latin word mola millstone can be misleading. With most probability, inspired by the latter, Marten Stol identifies the lithopaedion, i. In reality, the lithopaedion has nothing to do with molar-pregnancy — and cannot be classified under the ancient sense of mola either.
The earliest knowledge about the phenomenon 16thth century C. For cultural history research on the phenomenon and for the earliest accounts, respectively, see: Bonderson It felforgató patikus anti aging szérum possibly overlooked by the author that "hydatid" and "vesicular" mola are in fact one and the same, the latter simply being an alternative denomination referring to the characteristic, water-filled vesicular structure of the placental material see Figure 1.
For the general modern description of molar pregnancies see: Benirschke — Kaufmann— The borderline is set up by the 46th omen of the first tablet, which by means of paranomasia anti aging news signifies that from then on the handbook deals with pregnancies carried to term. Apart from the more or less successful identification of a few pathological cases, 6 the passage was not considered suitable for or worthy of detailed analysis.
It was said that Šumma izbu, or more precisely Sag-iti-nu-tila is one of the foundation stones of the intellectual science archives of the Mesopotamian diviner, or more generally of the first millennium; a peak achievement by contemporary standards and an indispensable source, which, as we have seen, the most prestigious scientists of the Assyrian court could refer to. Serious scientific works do not often begin with the enumeration of absurd, out of place, worthless data, but rather, such works are very consciously edited — and it is presumed that the Šumma sinništu arâtma is just such a composition.
The key to the problem lies in asking the right question. On the one hand, we could ask what real content, i.
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In other words, we need to distinguish between the scientific values of the present and ancient times, since it is clear that the two are not the same. The modern medical historian instinctively looks for concrete, empirical factual information among this gigantic collection of data, which would form the basis of the scientific or fictive nature of the statements and descriptions.
From a scientific, and specifically from a medical historical point of view they are completely uninteresting; it could even be said that all they testify is that there were people many thousands of years ago, as well, who excelled in wasting their time — moreover, within a formal framework.
Stolnote Pangas, Pangas a Spanish physician for instance, was written exactly in this spirit, pairing certain descriptions taken from the Šumma izbu with well known pathological diseases, and thus giving the layman the feeling, that the series is in fact none other than the first pathology textbook in history that summarizes accurate medical observations.
Jastrow saw the scientific value of the work in its originality and outlined at length the seeds sown for later sciences Jastrow42— Beyond the bodily deformities which could actually occur in nature, he took into account every possibility arising from felforgató patikus anti aging szérum theoretical framework of scientific thinking such as numerological relationships for exampleand therefore taking hypothetical cases into account meant a real scientific theory for him, based on systematic extrapolation and conclusions.
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Accordingly, upon interpreting the references made to crying foetuses in the Šumma izbu — before dealing with the first question presumably raised by the modern reader, that is, whether the analyzed section reflects real observations, theoretical possibilities, felforgató patikus anti aging szérum perhaps real fiction — it would be very useful to analyze the text both philologically and structurally.
In order to understand this correctly, however, it is necessary to shortly summarize the main methods of Mesopotamian omen-interpretation. Figure 1: product of a molar pregnancy 2. The methods of omen interpretation: correlation protasis and apodosis The omens felforgató patikus anti aging szérum conditional structures, subdivided as a rule into protasis sign and apodosis prediction 10 are not pronouncements of post hoc, propter hoc logic, the apodosis is therefore not the consequence of the phenomena described in the protasis.
The direction of the consequences is actually the reverse, it can thus be said that the omens are readable vice versa: in the messages or warnings referring to the future, which were worded in the protasis in case of the Šumma izbu in the [malformed] births the future, arising from the divine judgements relays a message, and in some form often also manifests itself.
The incarnation, naturally, refers to the source, i. In the followings we would like to overview these means, from the simplest, most clear associative schemes to the more complex associational processes requiring higher qualifications.
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First comes the transcription reflecting the exact text with Sumerian logograms independent word signsdeterminatives not independently standing, not to be read explanatory signs and phonograms marking the www. Fine examples of such interconnection of ideas are the following two liveromens: 13 1.
Šumma izbu VI 31 Akkadian syllables, resp. For more details about omens of similar wording see: Starr 10 K i 39as well as Hurowitz79 STT 2 ii For example, if the anomaly appears on the left side i. An excellent example of the opposite meaning of left side and right side, that is, the left-right symbolism, is the following sign-pair: 4. Šumma izbu XI 3—4 Similar principles of interpretation are observable in case of the above—below opposite pair.
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Šumma ālu I 15 16 6. PUM Rv. Accordingly, if the abnormality involves the upper lip of the foetus which basically bears negative connotationthe apodosis is favourable, in the opposite case however, it will be unfavourable, based on the same considerations: 15 The phenomenon was discovered quite early, see e. For the omens cited here, originating from the Šumma izbu series, see: Guinanpage 8.
The literary aspect of the following example is unequivocal, but naturally only to those who are familiar with the story of Etana, the legendary king who ascended into the sky on the back of an eagle: be šà-nigin gim ti8mušen šumma tīrānu kīma erî bà-ut dE-ta-na lugal šá an-e èd-ú amūt dEtana šarru ša šamê ītelû If the coils of the intestine look like an eagle: the omen of Etana, the king who ascended to heaven.
Clay No. Similarly, the internal context of the following omen can only be interpreted if the reader is familiar with the literary topos of humans making too much noise and therefore disturbing the gods, the earliest version of which can be read in the Old Babylonian Atra-hasis.
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See: Lambert—Millard72— In the omen text that follows, the association between protasis and apodosis was also inspired by the description of the catastrophe which destroyed mankind, it refers indirectly to the Atra-hasis and directly to the adapted story of the Gilgamesh Epic. Here, however, it is not enough to be acquainted with the main stream of events, since the focus is on a concrete passage, and its characteristic imagination and wording.
The reader has to know that before the Flood, i. Beyond the fact that the omen compendia, similarly to the manner described above, may refer to several texts 24 which are not known to us, there may be numerous associations between protases and apodoses which were quite clear to the inhabitants of ancient Mesopotamia e. NAGA mušen kú šumma āriba ikkal ir-bu tu-[ub] amēlu šû irbu irrub If a man eats a raven āributhat person will have income irbu.
Assyrian Dreambook, Obv. Svájci anti aging e111 forma recognize the wordplay, first the appropriate Sumerian logogram im-gi must be read in Akkadian: It is therefore 26 Several authors have referred to this kind of wordplay in the omen series, emphasizing a number of cases, e.
For discussion see: Noegel YOS X 17, 47 YOS X 17, 48 The Akkadian sign-names appearing in the protases pappum and kaškaššum, respectively are accompanied by associations of various character. On the same techniques used in the text commentaries see Frahm70— The associative value of sign forms is demonstrable in several sophisticated writing methods from the first millennium, see: Maulmainly 7—10, and Frahm Šumma izbu I 16 The association between sign and prediction is based on the emphasized Sumerian, or rather the equated Akkadian readings, with the complication that the latter are not identical to those which appear in the above represented, normalized transliteration.
Felforgató patikus anti aging szérum appropriateness of this is verified by the using of GE6 in the apodosis, since the primary Akkadian reading of this grapheme is the same: mūšu, that is, night. Therefore, in theory it is possible to write down the keywords of the protases and apodoses in alternative ways and in certain cases it seems the scribes did indeed associate sign with prediction on the basis of such theoretic spellings that is, spellings which do not appear on the tablet itself.
Frahm, Noegel Assyrian Dreambook Sm Rv. KAL expression of the apodosis is reflected. KAL-u NoegelNoegel In contrast, the last theoretic sign, BU, has a frequent Old Babylonian thus archaic reading, su13 which can also be applied here, and which moreover seems a more plausible phonetic complement of the word Lamassu.
In the next citation, beyond the evident wordplay, association involving the semantic fields of sign and prediction is also demonstrable: 44 Šumma izbu V 39 Figure 2.